In a battery, the anode is the negative electrode through which electrons flow out during discharge, enabling electrical energy to be released.


Carbon Capture

Carbon capture is a process using a suite of technologies that involves capturing carbon dioxide emissions to mitigate climate change. Carbon capture can include storage (CCS) as well as usage (CCUS). Carbon can be captured from industrial processes and power plants, as well as from direct air. Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) can include turning the carbon into useful products like fuels or construction materials.


In a battery, the cathode is the positive electrode through which electrons flow in during discharge, facilitating the storage of electrical energy.

Characterisation Factors

In Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA), characterisation factors are numerical values used to convert inventory data, like emissions or resource use, into standardized measures of environmental impact for specific categories such as global warming or water consumption. These factors enable a quantitative comparison of environmental effects across different products or processes.

Circular Economy

An economic model focused on minimizing waste and making the most of resources. This approach involves reusing, sharing, repairing, refurbishing, remanufacturing, and recycling existing materials and products as much as possible, rather than creating waste or continually using new resources. The aim is to extend product life, optimize resource use, and reduce environmental impact.

Climate Change

Climate change refers to long-term alterations in temperature, weather patterns, and atmospheric conditions, often attributed to human activities and greenhouse gas emissions.


Data Quality

In the context of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), data quality refers to the accuracy, reliability, and representativeness of the data used in the study. High-quality data is crucial for ensuring that the LCA results are credible and can be used for meaningful decision-making. Factors affecting data quality in LCA include the recency of the data, geographical and technological relevance, and the completeness of the data set.



In a battery, an electrolyte is a substance that allows ions to move between the anode and cathode, enabling the flow of electricity.

Environmental Footprint (EF)

An environmental footprint quantifies the overall environmental impact of a product, process, or activity, taking into account factors like energy consumption and emissions.

EU Battery Regulation

EU Battery regulation comprises rules governing the production, use, and disposal of batteries within the European Union, with an emphasis on sustainability and recycling.

EU Critical Raw Materials Act Proposal

This proposal within the European Union aims to ensure the availability and sustainable supply of critical raw materials essential for various industries.

EU Ecodesign for Sustainable Products Regulation

EU Ecodesign regulations focus on encouraging the design and manufacture of sustainable products, emphasizing energy efficiency and environmental performance.

EU Green Claims Directive

The EU Green claims directive regulates environmental claims made by products or services to prevent misleading marketing practices and promote transparency.

EU Net-Zero Industry Act Proposal

The proposed EU Net-Zero Industry Act is designed to help the industrial sector in the European Union achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emissions, aligning with climate goals.


Extraction refers to the process of removing natural resources, such as minerals or oil, from the Earth's crust, often with significant environmental consequences.


Global Warming Potential

Global warming potential (GWP) measures a substance's potential to contribute to global warming over a specified time period, often expressed in terms of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2eq).


Graphite is a form of carbon used in various applications, including as an electrode material in batteries and as a lubricant.

Green Copper

Green copper refers to copper produced via methods that minimise environmental impacts, such as reducing greenhouse gas emissions and waste in the mining and refining processes.


Greenwashing refers to intentionally or unintentionally deceptive marketing practices in which a product or company falsely portrays itself as sustainable.

Grid Mix Intensity

Grid mix intensity describes the composition of energy sources in the electricity grid, impacting the carbon footprint of electric devices and vehicles.



Hydrogen (H) is an element used in some sectors as an energy carrier, particularly in transportation.


Impact Categories

Impact categories in LCA group and assess various environmental impacts, such as global warming potential, water consumption, and land use, to provide a holistic view of a product's environmental performance.


Interpretation in LCA involves analyzing and comprehending the results to draw meaningful conclusions and make informed decisions regarding environmental impacts.


LCA Methodology

LCA, or Life Cycle Assessment, is a comprehensive method used to evaluate the environmental impact of a product or process throughout its entire life cycle, from raw material extraction to disposal.

LCA Visualisation

LCA visualisation uses graphical representations to present LCA results in a visually accessible and informative manner for stakeholders and decision-makers.

Lithium Brines

Lithium brines are natural sources of lithium found in underground reservoirs or salt flats, serving as a key source for lithium production.

Lithium Carbonate

Lithium carbonate is a lithium compound employed in battery manufacturing, particularly for cathodes.

Lithium Hydroxide

Lithium hydroxide is a lithium compound used in lithium-ion battery cathodes.


Manganese Sulfate

Manganese sulfate is a compound utilised in battery manufacturing, especially for cathodes in lithium-ion batteries.


Natural Graphite

Natural graphite is derived from naturally occurring sources and finds use in various industrial applications, including batteries.

Nickel Sulfate

Nickel sulfate is a compound used in battery manufacturing, particularly in the production of cathodes for lithium-ion batteries.


NMC stands for Nickel Manganese Cobalt, a common cathode material used in lithium-ion batteries.


Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors

Permanent magnet synchronous motors use permanent magnets to create a rotating magnetic field for mechanical movement, known for their efficiency.

Permanent Magnets

Permanent magnets are hard magnetic materials that retain their magnetism without the need for an external magnetic field. They have various applications, including in electric motors and generators.

Prospective LCA

Prospective LCA assesses the potential environmental impacts of a product or process before its development, guiding design choices to minimize harm. Sometimes referred to ex ante LCA.


Resource Depletion

Resource depletion refers to the gradual exhaustion of natural resources, such as minerals and fossil fuels, due to their extraction and consumption.


Sodium-Ion Batteries

Sodium-ion batteries are a type of rechargeable battery technology that uses sodium ions as charge carriers, offering potential alternatives to lithium-ion batteries in energy storage applications.

Solid-State Batteries

Solid-state batteries use solid electrolytes, offering potential advantages in terms of safety, energy density, and longevity compared to traditional liquid electrolyte batteries.


Substantiation involves providing evidence or proof to support a claim or statement. In environmental claims, substantiation ensures that claims are based on reliable data and analysis.

Synthetic Graphite

Synthetic graphite is graphite produced through artificial processes and is commonly used in battery manufacturing.


Uncertainty Analysis

In Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), uncertainty analysis is the process of evaluating the level of confidence associated with the results and conclusions of the study. It accounts for variability in data, assumptions, and modeling techniques to provide a range or confidence interval for the environmental impacts assessed. This analysis is crucial for understanding the reliability of LCA outcomes and informing decision-making.

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